WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

WHAT IS HTML? (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

HTML is the main markup language of the web. It runs natively in every browser and is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium.

You can use it to create the content structure of websites and web applications. It’s the lowest level of frontend technologies, that serves as the basis for styling you can add with CSS and functionality you can implement using JavaScript

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It helps the user to build and organize sections for web pages and applications, paragraphs, headings, links, and blockquotes.

HTML is not a programming language which means it has no ability to construct complex features. Instead, it makes it possible, similar to Microsoft Word, to organize and format documents.

We use quick code structures (tags and attributes) to label up a website page while working with HTML. For example, by placing the enclosed text within the starting <p> and closing </p> tags, we can construct a paragraph.

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WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

What are the features of HTML?

An example of a simple web page written in HTML is given below, explaining each section and its functionality.

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

 

The box above contains the key ingredients to a basic web page. Each of the lines is explained below in further detail.

The DOCTYPE line describes what version of HTML the page was written in so that an Internet browser can interpret the text that follows.

The <html> opening tag lets the browser know that it is reading HTML code.

The <head> section contains information about the page, such as its title, meta tags, and where to locate the CSS file.

The <body> section contains everything that’s viewable on the browser. For example, all the text seen here is contained in the body tags.

The <h1> tag is the visible heading of the page.

The <p> tag is a paragraph of text. Most web pages (like this one) have several paragraph tags.

Contained in the paragraph is the <b> tag that bolds the word example in the paragraph.

Finally, the closing tags wrap each of the above tags.

 

Which file extensions are used with HTML?

Either .htm or .html file extensions are used in HTML files. Older versions of Windows (Windows 3.x) only allow extensions of three-letter files, so they use .htm instead of .html.

Both file extensions, however, have the same purpose, and either one can be used today. That said, as some web servers may prefer one extension over the other, we suggest sticking to one naming convention.

 

The succinct history of HTML:

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the research institute of CERN in Switzerland, invented HTML.

He came up with the concept of a hypertext framework based on the Internet.

Hypertext means a text containing references (links) to other texts which can be accessed instantly by viewers. In 1991, he released the first HTML edition, which consisted of 18 HTML tags.

Every new version of the HTML language has been labeled with new tags and attributes (tag modifiers) since then.

There are currently 140 HTML tags, according to the Mozilla Developer Network’s HTML Element Guide, but some of them are already obsolete (not supported by modern browsers).

HTML is now considered an official web format due to a fast increase in popularity. The World Wide Web Consortium manages and develops the HTML requirements (W3C). On the W3C website, you can check the current status of the language at any time.

The language’s greatest upgrade was the release of HTML5 in 2014. Several new semantic tags that reveal the context of their own text, such as <article>, <header and footer>, have been added to the markup.

 

What is HTML5?

The change made to HTML from HTML4 is HTML5. It uses the same basic rules as HTML4 but adds some new tags and attributes that allow better semantics and JavaScript activated dynamic elements.

 

 

New elements include: <article>, <aside>, <audio>, <bdi>, <canvas>, <datalist>, <details>, <embed>, <figure>, <figcaption>, <footer>, <header>, <keygen>, <mark>, <meter>, <nav>, <output>, <progress>, <rp>, <rt>, <ruby>, <time>, <track>, <video>, and <wbr>.

There are also new input types for forms, which include tel, search, URL, e-mail, DateTime, date, month, week, time, DateTime-local, number, range, and color.

Some styling elements were eliminated, along with those that had usability problems or saw very little use with the growing trend to keep structure and design separate.

These following elements should no longer be used in HTML code: <acronym>, <applet>, <basefont>, <big>, <center>, <dir>, <font>, <frame>, <frameset>, <noframes>, <strike>, and <tt>.

HTML5 also simplifies the doctype declaration to the tag below.

<!doctype html>

 

How to create and view HTML?

As HTML is a markup language, if saved with a .htm or .html file extension, it can be created and displayed in any text editor. Most, however, find it easier to use an HTML editor to design and create web pages in HTML.

If the HTML file has been developed, it can be accessed locally or uploaded to a web server using a browser to access it online.

 

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Pros and Cons of HTML

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Like most things, HTML comes with a handful of strengths and limitations.

Pros:
  • A widely used language with a lot of resources and a huge community behind it.
  • Runs natively in every web browser.
  • Comes with a flat learning curve.
  • Open-source and completely free.
  • Clean and consistent markup.
  • The official web standards are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
  • Easily integrable with backend languages such as PHP and Node.js.
Cons:
  • Mostly used for static web pages. For dynamic functionality, you may need to use JavaScript or a backend language such as PHP.
  • It does not allow the user to implement logic. As a result, all web pages need to be created separately, even if they use the same elements, e.g. headers and footers.
  • Some browsers adopt new features slowly.
  • Browser behavior is sometimes hard to predict (e.g. older browsers don’t always render newer tags).

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How are HTML, CSS, and JavaScript related?

Although HTML is a powerful language, creating a professional and fully functional website isn’t enough. We can only use it to add elements of text and build the content structure.

However, with two other frontend languages: CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and JavaScript, HTML fits extremely well. They will achieve a rich user experience together and incorporate advanced functions.

 

For styles like backdrop, colors, templates, spacing, and animations, CSS is responsible.

JavaScript allows dynamic features such as sliders, pop-ups, and photo galleries to be introduced.

Think of HTML as a naked human, like gestures and etiquette, of CSS as clothes, and of JavaScript.

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

 

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