HTML is the main markup language of the web. It runs natively in every browser and is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium.

You can use it to create the content structure of websites and web applications. It’s the lowest level of frontend technologies, that serves as the basis for styling you can add with CSS and functionality you can implement using JavaScript

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It helps the user to build and organize sections for web pages and applications, paragraphs, headings, links, and blockquotes.

HTML is not a programming language which means it has no ability to construct complex features. Instead, it makes it possible, similar to Microsoft Word, to organize and format documents.

We use quick code structures (tags and attributes) to label up a website page while working with HTML. For example, by placing the enclosed text within the starting <p> and closing </p> tags, we can construct a paragraph.

Check out the meaning of  Web Development and its various parts

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic


What are the features of HTML?

An example of a simple web page written in HTML is given below, explaining each section and its functionality.



The box above contains the key ingredients to a basic web page. Each of the lines is explained below in further detail.

The DOCTYPE line describes what version of HTML the page was written in so that an Internet browser can interpret the text that follows.

The <html> opening tag lets the browser know that it is reading HTML code.

The <head> section contains information about the page, such as its title, meta tags, and where to locate the CSS file.

The <body> section contains everything that’s viewable on the browser. For example, all the text seen here is contained in the body tags.

The <h1> tag is the visible heading of the page.

The <p> tag is a paragraph of text. Most web pages (like this one) have several paragraph tags.

Contained in the paragraph is the <b> tag that bolds the word example in the paragraph.

Finally, the closing tags wrap each of the above tags.


Which file extensions are used with HTML?

Either .htm or .html file extensions are used in HTML files. Older versions of Windows (Windows 3.x) only allow extensions of three-letter files, so they use .htm instead of .html.

Both file extensions, however, have the same purpose, and either one can be used today. That said, as some web servers may prefer one extension over the other, we suggest sticking to one naming convention.


The succinct history of HTML:


Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the research institute of CERN in Switzerland, invented HTML.

He came up with the concept of a hypertext framework based on the Internet.

Hypertext means a text containing references (links) to other texts which can be accessed instantly by viewers. In 1991, he released the first HTML edition, which consisted of 18 HTML tags.

Every new version of the HTML language has been labeled with new tags and attributes (tag modifiers) since then.

There are currently 140 HTML tags, according to the Mozilla Developer Network’s HTML Element Guide, but some of them are already obsolete (not supported by modern browsers).

HTML is now considered an official web format due to a fast increase in popularity. The World Wide Web Consortium manages and develops the HTML requirements (W3C). On the W3C website, you can check the current status of the language at any time.

The language’s greatest upgrade was the release of HTML5 in 2014. Several new semantic tags that reveal the context of their own text, such as <article>, <header and footer>, have been added to the markup.


What is HTML5?

The change made to HTML from HTML4 is HTML5. It uses the same basic rules as HTML4 but adds some new tags and attributes that allow better semantics and JavaScript activated dynamic elements.



New elements include: <article>, <aside>, <audio>, <bdi>, <canvas>, <datalist>, <details>, <embed>, <figure>, <figcaption>, <footer>, <header>, <keygen>, <mark>, <meter>, <nav>, <output>, <progress>, <rp>, <rt>, <ruby>, <time>, <track>, <video>, and <wbr>.

There are also new input types for forms, which include tel, search, URL, e-mail, DateTime, date, month, week, time, DateTime-local, number, range, and color.

Some styling elements were eliminated, along with those that had usability problems or saw very little use with the growing trend to keep structure and design separate.

These following elements should no longer be used in HTML code: <acronym>, <applet>, <basefont>, <big>, <center>, <dir>, <font>, <frame>, <frameset>, <noframes>, <strike>, and <tt>.

HTML5 also simplifies the doctype declaration to the tag below.

<!doctype html>


How to create and view HTML?

As HTML is a markup language, if saved with a .htm or .html file extension, it can be created and displayed in any text editor. Most, however, find it easier to use an HTML editor to design and create web pages in HTML.

If the HTML file has been developed, it can be accessed locally or uploaded to a web server using a browser to access it online.



Pros and Cons of HTML


Like most things, HTML comes with a handful of strengths and limitations.

  • A widely used language with a lot of resources and a huge community behind it.
  • Runs natively in every web browser.
  • Comes with a flat learning curve.
  • Open-source and completely free.
  • Clean and consistent markup.
  • The official web standards are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
  • Easily integrable with backend languages such as PHP and Node.js.
  • Mostly used for static web pages. For dynamic functionality, you may need to use JavaScript or a backend language such as PHP.
  • It does not allow the user to implement logic. As a result, all web pages need to be created separately, even if they use the same elements, e.g. headers and footers.
  • Some browsers adopt new features slowly.
  • Browser behavior is sometimes hard to predict (e.g. older browsers don’t always render newer tags).

You may also want to know about the WordPress content management system



How are HTML, CSS, and JavaScript related?

Although HTML is a powerful language, creating a professional and fully functional website isn’t enough. We can only use it to add elements of text and build the content structure.

However, with two other frontend languages: CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and JavaScript, HTML fits extremely well. They will achieve a rich user experience together and incorporate advanced functions.


For styles like backdrop, colors, templates, spacing, and animations, CSS is responsible.

JavaScript allows dynamic features such as sliders, pop-ups, and photo galleries to be introduced.

Think of HTML as a naked human, like gestures and etiquette, of CSS as clothes, and of JavaScript.



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What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic
Search Engine Optimization(SEO)

What Is Search Engine Optimization and Why Is It Important?

What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic

Search engine optimization is nowadays more critical than ever and it is necessary for every webmaster to understand the true meaning of SEO as well as the potential it creates for every business.

What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic
What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic


What is SEO?

Search engine optimization or SEO in short is a set of rules for optimizing your website for search engines and improve your search engine rankings.

It is a great way to increase the quality of your website by making it user-friendly, faster, and easier to navigate.

SEO can be considered as a complete framework since the whole process has a number of rules (or guidelines), a number of stages, and a set of controls.

Why is SEO important?

In today’s competitive market, SEO marketing is more important than ever.

Search engines serve millions of users per day looking for answers to their questions or for solutions to their problems.

If you have a website, blog, or online store, SEO can help your business grow and meet the business objectives.

Search engine optimization is important because:

  • The majority of search engine users are more likely to click on one of the top 5 suggestions in the results pages(SERPS). To take advantage of this and gain visitors to your web site or customers to your online store, your website needs to appear in one of the top positions.
  • SEO is not only about search engines but good SEO practices improve the user experience and usability of a website.
  • Users trust search engines and having a presence in the top positions for the keywords the user is searching, increases the website’s trust.
  • SEO is good for the social promotion of your website. People who find your website by searching Google or Yahoo are more likely to promote it on Facebook, Twitter, or other social media channels.
  • SEO is important for the smooth running of a big web site. Web sites with more than one author can benefit from SEO in a direct and indirect way. Their direct benefit is an increase in search engine traffic and their indirect benefit is having a common framework (checklists) to use before publishing content on the site.
  • SEO can put you ahead of the competition. If two web sites are selling the same thing, the search engine optimized web site is more likely to have more customers and make more sales.


An introduction to SEO for beginners

What is SEO

For beginners, to SEO the above definition may sound complicated.

In simpler terms, Search Engine Optimization is a way to improve your website so that it will appear closer to the top positions in the search results of Google, Yahoo, Bing, or other search engines.

When you perform a search on Google the order by which the returning results are displayed, is based on complex algorithms.

These algorithms (also known as search engine ranking factors)  take a number of factors into account before they decide which web page will be own in the first place, second place, etc.

Optimizing your website for search engines will give you an advantage over non-optimized sites and you increase your chances to rank higher.


What are the main stages of the Search Engine Optimization process?

As I mentioned above, SEO is not a static process but rather a framework with rules and processes.

For simplicity though, SEO can be broken down into 3 main stages:

What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic
What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic

SEO Overview

Technical SEO: With technical SEO you can ensure that search engines can crawl and index your website without any issues.

On-site SEO: Rules to apply on your site and content to make it search engine friendly.

Off-site SEO: Ways to promote your website or blog so that it can rank higher in search results.


Technical SEO

The first stage in the SEO process is called technical SEO. As the name implies, technical SEO has nothing to do with the actual content of a website or with website promotion methods.

It has to do with settings you need to configure to make the job of search engine crawlers easier. Usually, once you get your technical SEO correct, you may not have to deal with it again.

On the other hand, if you have problems with crawling and indexing, it can negatively impact your rankings.

To perform a technical SEO audit review and ensure that everything is working as expected, read our Technical SEO Guide.

What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic


On-site SEO

The second stage is On-Page SEO. On-Page SEO has to do primarily with the content and other elements found on a page.

Unlike technical and off-page SEO, the main focus of on-page SEO is to provide search engine crawlers enough signals so that they can understand the meaning and context of your content.

Remember that search engines don’t read a page like a human so they are looking for signals to figure out what a page is all about.

It is at this stage that you will deal with website structureSEO keywords, title optimizations, headings, internal links, image SEO, structured data markup, and other techniques that can send the right signals to search engines.

If followed correctly, on-page SEO will also improve the usability and credibility of a website or blog.

Note that content optimization is part of on-page SEO but sometimes this is referred to as Content SEO.

Our On-Page SEO Guide explains the different on-page SEO techniques in detail.


Off-site SEO

The third stage is Off-Page SEO.

Besides the changes, you can do to your website (on-site SEO) so that it ranks higher in the SERPs, the other way to improve your website’s ranking position is by using off-site SEO techniques.

Off-site SEO is generally known as link building but I prefer to use the term website promotion since a proper way to promote a website involves much more methods and techniques than building links.


Why is off-page SEO important?

In general, when a user types a search query, search engine algorithms look into their index and try to find the best pages that can satisfy the intent of the user.

Pages that are good candidates appear in the first positions of the search results.

One of the factors to determine the position of a web page in the results is the number of incoming links (backlinks).

Backlinks are a signal of trust and depending on where the links are coming, they can greatly affect your ranking position.

If the links are coming from well-known and trusted sites, your ranking will be positively affected.

If they are paid links, links in article directories, link farms, or a result of an exchange, your ranking will be negatively affected.

Getting links this way is a violation of Google guidelines and most probably it will also result in a Google Penalty.


What can you do to get more links?

That’s an excellent question, and I am sure that if you search the Internet for that phrase, you will get hundreds of different answers.

You can read this article on how to approach link building but your primary focus not be how to get links but how to create good quality content for your website.

Good content will get you natural links which in turn will give you high ranking and traffic.

If you try to buy links or get them the easy way, you may have temporary success and then see your website disappearing from the top pages after the next Google update.


What is the best way to start learning SEO?

The best way to learn SEO is to practice SEO.

Besides learning the different concepts and theories, the only way to find out if what you’ve learned works, it to apply the various techniques on a website and monitor your rankings.

The following resources can help you get started:

  • SEO Starters Guide –Perfect for beginners to SEO.
  • The Complete SEO Course –Our own SEO Course covers all aspects of SEO with step-by-step examples and case studies.
  • How to become an SEO Expert –A guide with a list of resources to stay informed about new developments in the SEO World.
  • DIY SEO Tutorial –A tutorial on how to do SEO on your own. It covers both basic and advanced SEO Concepts.
  • SEO Checklist – A handy checklist to check that you have optimized all elements.


What is the difference between SEO and Internet marketing?

Some people often ask me “Is SEO the same as Internet Marketing?” The simplest answer I can give is that SEO is one of the tools available in your Internet Marketing arsenal.

It is not Internet Marketing as such but it can be part of your overall Internet Marketing campaign which normally includes other things like social media promotion, content strategy, etc.


Good content is still the most important success factor with or without SEO

Before closing this introduction to search engine optimization you must have very clear in your mind that SEO cannot help you if you don’t have good content.

In other words, if you try to SEO a website with not very good content your chances of succeeding (in the long term) are minimum.

On the other hand, a website with good content can do well with or without SEO.SEO will just give the website an extra boost.


SEO is a must for every web property

To sum it up, Search engine optimization or SEO is a way to optimize your website so that search engines will understand it better and give you higher rankings.

It is important since a good SEO approach can drive more traffic to your website, blog, or online store, and gain more customers, make sales, and fulfill your business objectives.

What Is Search Engine Optimization | Benin Republic




Starting up a business with a good marketing reputation comes with its own pros and cons, although present-day businesses have now better approach to content management and presentations that have proven to work in recent years, there wasn’t two decades ago when logical human reasoning was required to cater for vast activities and service rendered by organizations, companies, and firms.

In our current day of living, entrepreneurship as emerged as the driving force in the labor market, considering its powerful rise to the major source of employment all over the world, it has forced all attentions and study, unfailingly resulting have emerged and there is no other bigger secretes than STRATEGIC MARKETING.

Although social media have made marketing procedure simpler and quicker in outreach to an unimaginable number of people, strategy as one of the major tools of marketing goes wilder than just B2B emails, advertising companies, leads generations, or the social media itself.

Marketing style often varies due to changes in the environment, uncertainty, economic periods, as well as social and political issues, have significantly influenced recent marketing conditions.

In many years of marketing practice, the most effective practitioners (x%) are those that stick to the basic rules of marketing which was laid down by Philip Kotler of the Kellogg School of Management, here are the top three:




Starting up a business requires a pattern and course which the business sails, Bob Wilson of Stoney-Wilson business consulting said “You need a destination and you need a map to get there,” which is the primary aim of all business plans. The reputation of a business always depends on the tactical analysis of the plan, a well-planned business will always have room for misfortunes that might be encountered, SWOT analysis is the essential tool to this aspect of business strategy well analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of such business. In the feature, a company business plan might be required by lenders, insurance companies, bonding companies for investment purposes, having a good business plan on the ground makes investment suitable for potential investors.

A business plan helps the business owner to think through issues and understand problems. It’s the shorter-term plan for 6-12 months — as compared to the longer-term strategic plan. The shorter-term enables greater accuracy in completing the action steps to achieve the key initiatives, Wilson explains.

Check out this article on SEO definition and why it’s necessary to incorporate it on your website.

Search Engine Optimization(SEO)




  1. Understanding your targeted audience and solving their problems:

Knowing the competition is an important component of a business strategy. In order to compete, you must understand what the competition is doing, these play a vital role in modern-day marketing, having a product or services developed on the bases of good market survey, quality questionnaires, and customer opinions or feedbacks help in producing quality problems solving materials and providing (as the case may be) a foreknowledge of a particular field or product. This helps you to shea away from corporate competitive advantages or technology. having this in place, help you to have more time to interact with your customer, analyze their problems accept their criticism, suggestions, evaluate their compliant then device a means to beat down the pricing and service levels of your competitors. With these you great a new approach to your proposed field.


  1. Build your brand promise that is delivered by everyone in your business network:


one thing is understanding your market, another is a policy that guides your product, in this regards all employees and agents of your company including associates have to be trained and monitored so as to maintain the integrity of the product you produced and for then to meet with expectations. Transparency is also a watching world when going about this part of the marketing strategy. Companies like Amazon, eBay, Microsoft all have this as a major rule in their businesses, they all train their workers and all their channels are made to follow the company’s privacy policy. It also helps in gaining the trust of your potential customer. Knowing the competition is an important component of a business plan. In order to compete, you must understand what the competition is doing, such as pricing and service levels.


  1. Innovate continuously in your products and services:

For a company to maintain its stronghold for fortunes of years, it has to understand this universal marketing rule. The need for continuous growth has to be perpetual if your company must stay in the spotlight. Changes made in the company’s product due to present demands or problems could only take care of current situations, therefore, drastic measures, materials, and more thinking strength are put in place to take care of the future. These are measures that the founders of the world’s largest branding companies, Adolf Dassler (Adidas) and Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman (Nike) put in place when they started and it helped in keeping the supply chain alive. Love their prosperity? why don’t u do the same for your business?

This was the basic strategy Philip Kotler laid down, but that’s not all, there are more of which he made mention, the above are the predominant and basic strategies practiced by the standing out companies of today.