WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION
WHAT IS HTML? (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

WHAT IS HTML? (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

HTML is the main markup language of the web. It runs natively in every browser and is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium.

You can use it to create the content structure of websites and web applications. It’s the lowest level of frontend technologies, that serves as the basis for styling you can add with CSS and functionality you can implement using JavaScript

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It helps the user to build and organize sections for web pages and applications, paragraphs, headings, links, and blockquotes.

HTML is not a programming language which means it has no ability to construct complex features. Instead, it makes it possible, similar to Microsoft Word, to organize and format documents.

We use quick code structures (tags and attributes) to label up a website page while working with HTML. For example, by placing the enclosed text within the starting <p> and closing </p> tags, we can construct a paragraph.

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WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

What are the features of HTML?

An example of a simple web page written in HTML is given below, explaining each section and its functionality.

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

 

The box above contains the key ingredients to a basic web page. Each of the lines is explained below in further detail.

The DOCTYPE line describes what version of HTML the page was written in so that an Internet browser can interpret the text that follows.

The <html> opening tag lets the browser know that it is reading HTML code.

The <head> section contains information about the page, such as its title, meta tags, and where to locate the CSS file.

The <body> section contains everything that’s viewable on the browser. For example, all the text seen here is contained in the body tags.

The <h1> tag is the visible heading of the page.

The <p> tag is a paragraph of text. Most web pages (like this one) have several paragraph tags.

Contained in the paragraph is the <b> tag that bolds the word example in the paragraph.

Finally, the closing tags wrap each of the above tags.

 

Which file extensions are used with HTML?

Either .htm or .html file extensions are used in HTML files. Older versions of Windows (Windows 3.x) only allow extensions of three-letter files, so they use .htm instead of .html.

Both file extensions, however, have the same purpose, and either one can be used today. That said, as some web servers may prefer one extension over the other, we suggest sticking to one naming convention.

 

The succinct history of HTML:

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the research institute of CERN in Switzerland, invented HTML.

He came up with the concept of a hypertext framework based on the Internet.

Hypertext means a text containing references (links) to other texts which can be accessed instantly by viewers. In 1991, he released the first HTML edition, which consisted of 18 HTML tags.

Every new version of the HTML language has been labeled with new tags and attributes (tag modifiers) since then.

There are currently 140 HTML tags, according to the Mozilla Developer Network’s HTML Element Guide, but some of them are already obsolete (not supported by modern browsers).

HTML is now considered an official web format due to a fast increase in popularity. The World Wide Web Consortium manages and develops the HTML requirements (W3C). On the W3C website, you can check the current status of the language at any time.

The language’s greatest upgrade was the release of HTML5 in 2014. Several new semantic tags that reveal the context of their own text, such as <article>, <header and footer>, have been added to the markup.

 

What is HTML5?

The change made to HTML from HTML4 is HTML5. It uses the same basic rules as HTML4 but adds some new tags and attributes that allow better semantics and JavaScript activated dynamic elements.

 

 

New elements include: <article>, <aside>, <audio>, <bdi>, <canvas>, <datalist>, <details>, <embed>, <figure>, <figcaption>, <footer>, <header>, <keygen>, <mark>, <meter>, <nav>, <output>, <progress>, <rp>, <rt>, <ruby>, <time>, <track>, <video>, and <wbr>.

There are also new input types for forms, which include tel, search, URL, e-mail, DateTime, date, month, week, time, DateTime-local, number, range, and color.

Some styling elements were eliminated, along with those that had usability problems or saw very little use with the growing trend to keep structure and design separate.

These following elements should no longer be used in HTML code: <acronym>, <applet>, <basefont>, <big>, <center>, <dir>, <font>, <frame>, <frameset>, <noframes>, <strike>, and <tt>.

HTML5 also simplifies the doctype declaration to the tag below.

<!doctype html>

 

How to create and view HTML?

As HTML is a markup language, if saved with a .htm or .html file extension, it can be created and displayed in any text editor. Most, however, find it easier to use an HTML editor to design and create web pages in HTML.

If the HTML file has been developed, it can be accessed locally or uploaded to a web server using a browser to access it online.

 

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Pros and Cons of HTML

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

Like most things, HTML comes with a handful of strengths and limitations.

Pros:
  • A widely used language with a lot of resources and a huge community behind it.
  • Runs natively in every web browser.
  • Comes with a flat learning curve.
  • Open-source and completely free.
  • Clean and consistent markup.
  • The official web standards are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
  • Easily integrable with backend languages such as PHP and Node.js.
Cons:
  • Mostly used for static web pages. For dynamic functionality, you may need to use JavaScript or a backend language such as PHP.
  • It does not allow the user to implement logic. As a result, all web pages need to be created separately, even if they use the same elements, e.g. headers and footers.
  • Some browsers adopt new features slowly.
  • Browser behavior is sometimes hard to predict (e.g. older browsers don’t always render newer tags).

You may also want to know about the WordPress content management system

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How are HTML, CSS, and JavaScript related?

Although HTML is a powerful language, creating a professional and fully functional website isn’t enough. We can only use it to add elements of text and build the content structure.

However, with two other frontend languages: CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and JavaScript, HTML fits extremely well. They will achieve a rich user experience together and incorporate advanced functions.

 

For styles like backdrop, colors, templates, spacing, and animations, CSS is responsible.

JavaScript allows dynamic features such as sliders, pop-ups, and photo galleries to be introduced.

Think of HTML as a naked human, like gestures and etiquette, of CSS as clothes, and of JavaScript.

WHAT IS HTML (HYPERTEXT MARK-UP LANGUAGE) DEFINITION

 

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What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic
What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic

What is Web Development?

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic

Web development commonly refers to the functions correlated with developing websites for hosting via intranet or Internet. The Web development process incorporates factors like Web design, Web content development, client-side/server-side scripting, and network security configuration, among other functions. Web development is also known as website development.

Web development is the coding or programming that accredits website functionality, as per the owner’s demands. It mainly associates with the non-design facet of building websites, which consists of coding and writing mark-up.

Web development ranges from generating plain text pages to complex Web-based applications, social network applications, and electronic business applications.

The Web development hierarchy is as follows:

  • Client-side coding
  • Server-side coding
  • Database technology 

 

Web Development – An Overview

Web development mainly consists of building, creating, and maintaining websites. It consists of aspects such as web design, web publishing, web programming, and database management.

While the terms “web developer” and “web designer” are often used frequently, they do not mean the same thing. Technically, a web designer only designs website interfaces using HTML and CSS. A web developer may be muddled in designing a website, but may also write web scripts in languages such as PHP. Additionally, a web developer may help maintain and update a database used by a dynamic website.

 

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic

 

Web development consists of many types of web content creation. Some examples include hand coding web pages in a text editor, designing a website in a program like Dream weaver, and updating a blog via a blogging website. In the last few years, content management systems like WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla have also become crowd-pleasing in means of web development. These tools make it easy for anyone to create and edit their own website using a web-based interface.

While there are considerable methods of developing websites, there’s usually a trade-off between simplicity and customization. Therefore, most large businesses do not prefer content management systems, but instead, have a dedicated Web development team that designs and manages the company’s website(s). Small organizations and individuals are more likely to choose a solution like WordPress that serve abasic website template and simplified editing tools.

1. Definition of Web Development?

Web development is the process of building websites and applications for the internet, or for a private network known as an intranet. Web development is not concerned with the design of a website; rather, it’s all about the coding and programming that powers the website’s functionality.

From the most simple, static web pages to social media platforms and apps, from eCommerce websites to content management systems(CMS); all the tools we use via the internet on a daily basis have been built by web developers.

Web development can be broken down into three layers: client-side coding (frontend), server-side coding (backend), and database technology.

Let’s take a look at each of these layers in more detail.

Client-side

Client-side scripting, or frontend development, refers to everything that the end-user experiences directly. The client-side code executes in a web browser and directly relates to what people see when they visit a website. Things like layout, fonts, colors, menus, and contact forms are all driven by the front end.

Server-side

Server-side scripting, or backend development, is all about what goes on behind the scenes. The backend is essentially the part of a website that the user doesn’t actually see. It is responsible for storing and organizing data, and ensuring that everything on the client-side runs smoothly. It does this by communicating with the frontend. Whenever something happens on the client-side — say, a user fills out a form — the browser sends a request to the server-side. The server-side “responds” with relevant information in the form of frontend code that the browser can then interpret and display.

Database technology

Websites also rely on database technology. The database contains all the files and content that are necessary for a website to function, storing it in such a way that makes it easy to retrieve, organize, edit, and save. The database runs on a server, and most websites typically use some form of the relational database management system (RDBMS).

To summarize: the frontend, backend, and database technology all work together to build and run a fully functional website or application, and these three layers form the foundation of web development.

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The Difference Between Web Development and Web Design

You might hear the terms web development and web design used interchangeably, but these are two very different things.

Imagine a web designer and web developer working together to build a car: the developer would take care of all the functional components, like the engine, the wheels, and the gears, while the designer would be responsible for both the visual aspects — how the car looks, the layout of the dashboard, the design of the seats — and for the user experience provided by the car, so whether or not it’s a smooth drive.

Web designers design how the website looks and feels. They model the layout of the website, making sure it’s logical, user-friendly, and pleasant to use. They consider all the different visual elements: what color schemes and fonts will be used? What buttons, drop-down menus, and scrollbars should be included, and where? What interactive touchpoints does the user interact with to get from point A to B? Web design also considers the information architecture of the website, establishing what content will be included and where it should be placed.

 

Web design is an extremely broad field and will often be broken down into more specific roles such as User Experience Design, User Interface Design, and Information Architecture.

It is the web developer’s job to take this design and develop it into a live, fully functional website. A front-end developer takes the visual design as provided by the web designer and builds it using coding languages such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. A backend developer builds the more advanced functionality of the site, such as the checkout function on an eCommerce site.

In short, a web designer is an architect, while a web developer is a builder or engineer.

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What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic

 

2. A Brief History of the World Wide Web


The web as we know it today has been decades in the making. To help understand how web development works, let’s go back to where it all started and consider how the internet has evolved over the years.

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in Cotonou Benin Republic
1965: The first WAN (Wide Area Network)

The internet is essentially a network of networks, connecting all different WANs. WAN stands for Wide Area Network, a telecommunications network that spans large geographical distances. The first WAN was established in 1965 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Later on, this WAN would be known as ARPANET. It was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defence.

1969: The first-ever internet message

In October 1969, UCLA student Charley Kline sent the first-ever internet message. He tried to send the word “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute via the ARPANET network, but the system crashed after the first two letters. However, about an hour later, the system recovered and the full text was successfully delivered.

The 1970s: The rise of the LAN (Local Area Network)

The early 70s saw the development of several experimental LAN technologies. LAN stands for Local Area Network, a computer network that connects nearby devices in the same buildings — such as in schools, universities, and libraries. Some notable milestones include the development of Ethernet at Xerox Parc from1973-1974 and the development of ARCNET is 1976.

1982 – 1989:Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), the Domain Name System and Dial-Up Access

In 1982, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) emerged as the ARPANET protocol, and TCP/IP remains the standard internet protocol today. While in 1983, the Domain Name System was established, providing a more user-friendly way of labeling and designating websites (i.e. career foundry.com instead of a series of numbers). 1987, Cisco shipped its first router, and in 1989, World.std.com became the first commercial provider of dial-up internet access.

1990: Tim Berners-Lee and HTML

In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) developed HTML — Hypertext Mark-up Language. HTML became, and still is, a fundamental building block of the internet.

1991: The WorldWide Web Goes Mainstream

With the rise of the visual internet browser, the World Wide Web made its way into the mainstream. As of 2018, there are more than 4 billion internet users around the globe.

 

3. What Does a Web Developer Do?


The role of the web developer is to build and maintain websites. Web developers can work in-house or freelance, and the specific tasks and responsibilities involved will vary depending on whether they’re working as a frontend, backend, or full-stack developer. Full-stack developers specialize in both the frontend and backend; we’ll go into more detail about what a full-stack developer does later on.

Web developers are responsible for building a product that meets both the client’s needs and those of the customer or end-user. Web developers collaborate with stakeholders, clients, and designers in order to understand the vision: how should the final website look and function?

A large part of web development also revolves around identifying and fixing bugs in order to constantly optimize and improve a website or system. Web developers are therefore keen problem solvers, regularly coming up with solutions and workarounds to keep things running smoothly.

Of course, all web developers are proficient in certain programming languages. However, different developers will work with different languages depending on their specific job title and area of expertise. Let’s take a look at the different layers of web development and the associated tasks in more detail.

Learn more: What is a typical day in the life of a web developer?

 

What does a frontend developer do?

It is the frontend developer’s job to code the frontend of a website or application; that is, the part of the website that the user sees and interacts with. They take the backend data and turn it into something that is easily comprehensible, visually pleasing, and fully functional for the everyday user. They will work from designs provided by the web designer and bring them to life using HTML, JavaScript, and CSS (more on those later!).

The frontend developer implements the website layout, interactive and navigational elements such as buttons and scrollbars, images, content, and internal links (links that navigate from one page to another within the same website). Frontend developers are also responsible for ensuring optimal display across different browsers and devices. They will code the website in such a way that makes it responsive or adaptive to various screen sizes so that the user gets the same experience whether they’re visiting the website on mobile, desktop, or tablet.

Frontend developers will also carry out usability tests and constantly fix any bugs that arise. At the same time, they will consider SEO best practices, maintain software workflow management, and develop tools that enhance how the user interacts with a website in any browser.

What does a backend developer do?

The backend is essentially the brains behind the face(the frontend). A backend developer is therefore responsible for building and maintaining the technology needed to power the frontend, consisting of three parts: a server, an application, and a database.

The code that backend developers create ensures that everything the frontend developer builds is fully functional, and it is the backend developer’s job to make sure that the server, application, and database communicate with each other. So how do they do this? First, they use server-side languages such as PHP, Ruby, Python, and Java to build the application. Then they use tools like My SQL, Oracle, and SQL Server to find, save, or edit data and deliver it back to the user in front-end code.

Just like frontend developers, backend developers will liaise with the client or business owner in order to understand their needs and requirements. They will then deliver these in a number of ways depending on the specifics of the project. Typical back-end development tasks include creating, integrating, and managing the database, building server-side software using backend frameworks, developing and deploying content management systems (for a blog, for example), as well as working with web server technologies, API integration and operating systems.

Backend developers are also responsible for testing and debugging any backend elements of a system or application.

What does a full-stack developer do?

A full-stack developer is someone who understands and can work across, the “full-stack” of technology: i.e. both the frontend and the backend. Full-stack developers are experts in every stage of the web development process, meaning they are well-equipped to get hands-on, but can also guide on strategy and best practices.

Most full-stack developers have gathered many years of experience in a variety of different roles, giving them a solid grounding across the entire web development spectrum. Full-stack developers are proficient in both frontend and backend languages and frameworks, as well as in server, network, and hosting environments. They are also well-versed in both business logic and user experience.


Mobile Developers

Web developers may also specialize in mobile app development, either for iOS or Android.

iOS developers build apps that run with the iOS operating system — the one used by Apple devices. iOS developers are fluentin Swift, the programming language that Apple created specifically for their apps.

Android developers build apps that are compatible with all Android devices, such as Samsung smartphones. Java is the official programming language for Android.

4. Programming Languages, Libraries and Frameworks

In order to build websites and apps, web developers work with languages,libraries and frameworks. Let’s take a look at each of these in detail, as well as some other tools that web developers use in their day-to-day work.

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in the Cotonou Benin Republic

What are the languages?

In the world of web development, languages are the building blocks that programmers use to create websites, apps, and software. There are all different types of languages, including programming languages, markup languages, style sheet languages, and database languages.

Programming languages 

A programming language is essentially a set of instructions and commands which tell the computer to produce a certain output. Programmers use so-called “high-level” programming languages to write sourcecode. High-level languages use logical words and symbols, making them easy for humans to read and understand. High-level languages can be classified as either compiled or interpreted languages.

C++ and Java, for instance, are compiled high-level languages; they are first saved in a text-based format that is comprehensible for human programmers but not for computers. In order for the computer to run the source code, it needs to be converted to a low-level language; i.e. machine code. Compiled languages tend to be used to create software applications.

Interpreted languages like Perl and PHP do not need to be compiled. Instead, source code written in these languages can be run through an interpreter — a program that reads and executes code. Interpreted languages are generally used for running scripts, such as those used to generate content for dynamic websites.

Low-level languages are those that can be directly recognized by and executed on the computer hardware; they don’t need to be interpreted or translated. Machine language and assembly language are some common examples of low-level languages.

Some of the most popular programming languages of 2018 include Java, C, C++, Python, C#, JavaScript, PHP, Ruby, and Perl.

Learn more: A beginner’s guide to the 10 most popular programming languages

Markup languages

Markup languages are used to specify the formatting of a text file. In other words, a markup language tells the software that displays the text of how the text should be formatted. Markup languages are completely legible to the human eye — they contain standard words — but the markup tags are not visible in the final output.

The two most popular markup languages are HTML and XML. HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language and is used for the creation of websites. When added to a plain text document, HTML tags describe how this document should be displayed by a web browser. To understand how HTML works, let’s take the example of bold tags. The HTML version would be written as follows:

<b>Make this sentence bold!</b>

When the browser reads this, it knows to display that sentence in bold. This is what the user sees:

Make this sentence bold!
Learn more: What is HTML? A beginner’s guide

XML stands for extensible Markup Language. It is a markup language very similar to HTML; however, while HTML was designed to display data with a focus on how it looks, XML was designed purely to store and transport data. Unlike HTML, XML tags are not predefined; rather, they are created by the author of the document. The point of XML is to simplify data sharing and transport, platform changes, and data availability, as it provides software and hardware-independent means of storing, transporting and sharing data. You can learn more about XML and how it works here.

Style sheet languages

A style sheet is a set of stylistic rules. Web developers use style sheet languages, quite literally, to style documents that are written in markup languages.

Consider a document written in HTML and styled using CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), a style sheet language. The HTML is responsible for the content and structure of the web page, while CSS determines how this content should be presented visually. CSS can be used to add colors, change fonts, insert backgrounds and borders, as well as style forms. CSS is also used to optimize web pages for responsive design, ensuring they adapt their layout to whatever device the user is on.

Learn more: What is CSS?

Database languages

Languages are not only used for building websites, software, and apps; they are also used to create and manage databases.

Databases are used to store huge volumes of data. The Spotify music app, for example, uses databases to store music files, as well as data about the user’s listening preferences. Likewise, social media apps like Instagram use databases to store user profile information; every time a user updates their profile in some way, the app’s database will also update.

Databases are not designed to understand the same languages that apps are programmed in, so it’s essential to have a language that they do understand — like SQL, the standard language for accessing and manipulating relational databases. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It has its own markup and basically enables programmers to work with the data held in a database system.

What are libraries and frameworks?

Web developers also work with libraries and frameworks. Despite much confusion,they are not the same thing — although they are both there to make the developer’s job easier.

Libraries and frameworks are essentially sets of prewritten code, but libraries are smaller codes for more specific use-cases. A library contains a collection of useful code, grouped together to be reused later. The purpose of a library is to enable developers to reach the same end goal while writing less code to get there.

Let’s take the example of JavaScript, the language, and jQuery, a JavaScript library. Rather than writing, say, ten lines of code in JavaScript, the developer can take the condensed, prewritten version from the jQuery library — saving time and effort.
A framework contains ready-made components and tools that enable the developer to write code faster, and many frameworks also contain libraries. It gives the developer a structure to work from, and the framework you choose to work with will largely dictate the way you build your website or app, so choosing a framework is a big decision. Some popular frameworks include Bootstrap, Rails, and  Angular.

The easiest way to understand libraries and frameworks is to imagine you are building a house. The framework provides the foundation and the structure, as well as for instructions or guidelines for completing certain tasks. Say you want to install an oven in your new home: you could buy the separate components and build the oven from scratch, or you could pick an already-made oven from the store. Just like building a website, you can write the code from scratch or you can take pre-written code from a library and simply insert it.

Other web development tools

Web developers will also use a text editor, such as Atom, Sublime or Visual Studio Code, to write their code; a web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox; and an extremely crucial tool: Git!

Git is a version control system where developers can store and manage their code. As a web developer, it’s inevitable that you’ll make constant changes to your code, so a tool like Git that enables you to track these changes and reverse them if necessary is extremely valuable. Git also makes it easier to work with other teams and to manage multiple projects at once. Git has become such a staple in the world of web development that it’s now a bad practice not to use it.

Another extremely popular tool is GitHub, a cloud interface for Git. GitHub offers all the version control functionality of Git,but also comes with its own features such as bug tracking, task management, and project wikis. GitHub not only hosts repositories; it also provides developers with a comprehensive toolset, making it easier to follow best practices for coding. Developers consider the place to be for open-source projects, and also provides a platform for web developers to showcase their skills.

What is Web Development? | Web Development services in the Cotonou Benin Republic