Search Engine Optimization(SEO)

What Is Search Engine Optimization and Why Is It Important?

Search engine optimization is now adays more important than ever and it is necessary for every web master to understand the true meaning of SEO as well as the potential it creates for every business

What is SEO?

Search engine optimization or SEO in short, is a set of rules for optimizing your website for search engines and improve your search engine rankings.

It is a great way to increase the quality of your web site by making it user- friendly, faster and easier to navigate.

SEO can be considered as a complete framework since the whole process has a number of rules (or guidelines), a number of stages and a set of controls.

Why is SEO important?

In today’s competitive market, SEO marketing is more important than ever.

Search engines serve millions of users per day looking for answers to their questionsor for solutions to their problems.

If you have a web site, blog or online store, SEO can help your business grow and meet the business objectives.

Search engine optimization is important because:

  • The majority of search engines users are more likely to click on one of the top 5 suggestions in the results pages(SERPS). To take advantage of this and gain visitors to your web site or customers to your online store, your website needs to appear in one of the top positions.
  • SEO is not only about search engines but good SEO practices improve the user experience and usability of a web site.
  • Users trust search engines and having a presence in the top positions for the keywords the user is searching, increases the website’s trust.
  • SEO is good for the social promotion of your website. People who find your web site by searching Google or Yahoo are more likely to promote it on Facebook, Twitter, or other social media channels.
  • SEO is important for the smooth running of a big web site. Web sites with more than one author can benefit from SEO in a direct and indirect way. Their direct benefit is increase in search engine traffic and their indirect benefit is having a common framework (checklists) to use before publishing content on the site.
  • SEO can put you ahead of the competition. If two web sites are selling the same thing, the search engine optimized web site is more likely to have more customers and make more sales.

An introduction to SEO for beginners

What is SEO

For beginners to SEO the above definition may sound complicated.

In simpler terms, Search Engine Optimization is a way to improve your website so that it will appear closer to the top positions in the search results of Google, Yahoo, Bing or other search engines.

When you perform a search on Google the order by which the returning results are displayed, is based on complex algorithms.

These algorithms (also known as search engine ranking factors),take a number of factors into account before they decide which web page will besh own in the first place, second place etc.

Optimizing your website for search engines will give you an advantage over non-optimized sites and you increase your chances to rank higher.

What are the main stages of the Search Engine Optimization process?

As I mentioned above, SEO is not a static process but rather a framework with rules and processes.

For simplicity though, SEO can be broken down into 3 main stages:

SEO Overview

Technical SEO: With technical SEO you can ensure that searchengines can crawl and index your website without any issues.

On-site SEO: Rules to apply on your site and content to make it search engine friendly.

Off-site SEO: Ways to promote your website or blog so that it can rank higher in search results.

 Technical SEO

The first stage in the SEO process is called technical SEO. As the name implies,technical SEO has nothing to do with the actual content of a website or with website promotion methods.

It has to do with settings you need to configure to make the job of search engine crawlers easier. Usually, once you get your technical SEO correct, you may not have to deal with it again.

On the other hand, if you have problems with crawling and indexing, it can negatively impact on your rankings.

To perform a technical SEO audit review and ensure that everything is working as expected, read our Technical SEO Guide.

On-site SEO

The second stage is On-Page SEO. On-Page SEO has to do primarily with the content and other elements found on a page.

Unlike technical and off-page SEO, the main focus of on-page SEO is to provide search engine crawlers enough signals so that they can understand the meaning and context of your content.

Remember that search engines don’t read a page like a human so they are looking for signals to figure out what a page is all about.

It is at this stage that you will deal with website structureSEO keywords, title optimizations, headings, internal links, image SEO, structured data markup and other techniques that can send the right signals to search engines.

If followed correctly, on-page SEO will also improve the usability and credibility of a website or blog.

Note that content optimization is part of on-page SEO but sometimes this is referred to as Content SEO.

Our On-Page SEO Guide explains the different on-page SEO techniques in detail.

Off-site SEO

The third stage is Off-Page SEO.

Besides the changes you can do to your website (on-site SEO) so that it ranks higher in the SERPs, the other way to improve your website’s ranking position is by using off-site SEO techniques.

Off-siteSEO is generally known as link building but I prefer to use the term web site promotion since a proper wayto promote a website involves much more methods and techniques than building links.

Why is off-page SEO important?

In general, when a user types a search query, search engine algorithms look into their index and try to find the best pages that can satisfy the intent ofthe user.

Pages that are good candidates appear to the first positions of the search results.

One of the factors to determine the position a web page in the results, is thenumber of incoming links (backlinks).

Backlinks are asignal of trust and depending from where the links are coming, they can greatly affect your ranking position.

If the links are coming from well-known and trusted sites, your ranking will be positively affected.

If they are paid links, links in article directories, link farms or a result of an exchange, your ranking will be negatively affected.

Getting links this way, is a violation of Google guidelines and most probably it will also result in a Google Penalty.

What can you do to get more links?

That’s a very good question and I am sure that if you search the Internet for that phrase you will get hundreds of different answers.

You can read this article on how to approach link building but your primary focus not be how to get links but how to create good quality content for your web site.

Good content will get you natural links which in turn will give you high ranking sand traffic.

If you try to buy links or get them the easy way, you may have temporary success and then see your website disappearing from the top pages after the next Google update.

What is the best way to start learning SEO?

The best way to learn SEO is to practice SEO.

Besides learning the different concepts and theories, the only way to find out if what you’ve learned works, it to apply the various techniques on a website and monitor your rankings.

The following resources can help you get started:

  • SEO Starters Guide –Perfect for beginners to SEO.
  • The Complete SEO Course –Our own SEO Course which covers all aspects of SEO with step-by-step examples and case studies.
  • How to become an SEO Expert –A guide with a list of resources to stay informed about new developments in theSEO World.
  • DIY SEO Tutorial –A tutorial on how to do SEO on your own. It covers both basic and advanced SEO Concepts.
  • SEO Checklist – A handy checklist to check that you have optimized all elements.

What is the difference of SEO and Internet marketing?

Some people often ask me “Is SEO the same as Internet Marketing?” The simplest answer I can give is that SEO is one of the tools available in your Internet Marketing arsenal.

It is not Internet Marketing as such but it can be part of your overall Internet Marketing campaign which normally includes other things like social media promotion, content strategy etc.

Good content is still the most important success factor with or without SEO

Before closing this introduction to search engine optimization you must have very clear in your mind that SEO cannot help you if you don’t have good content.

In other words, if you try to SEO a website with not very good content your chances of succeeding (in the long term) are minimum.

On the other hand, a website with good content can do well with or without SEO.SEO will just give the web site an extra boost.

SEO is a must for every web property

To sum it up, Search engine optimization or SEO is a way to optimize your web site so that search engines will understand it better and give you higher rankings.

It is important since a good SEO approach can drive more traffic to your website,blog or on-line store and gain more customers, make sales and fulfil your business objectives.

The Importance of Logos

The Importance of Logos (and Why Your Business Needs One)

When you’re on the cusp of starting a new business, pursuing a passion project, or testing a concept, you may not think much about designing a logo.

And that makes sense considering all the other things you have to figure out, including what to call your new business, how it’ll operate, when you’ll find the time to do it, and so on.

As you inch closer to launching, the need for a logo will likely pop up, especially if you’re designing a website or business cards.

Even still, you might be thinking, can I put it off a little longer? How important is a logo, anyway?

Here’s the thing: 

Putting a visual on what you’re doing brings your idea to life and communicates it in away that words can’t. 

And while delivering a fantastic product or service is your top priority, you can think of a logo as a support system, helping you gain visibility, trust, and goodwill.

Need more convincing? Here’s why a logo is important for small businesses, especially early-stage ones!

It gives your company an identity.

The famous designer Paul Rand wrote, “a logo doesn’t sell (directly), it identifies.”

Let’s reiterate — the number one purpose a logo serves is to give your business (or organization, group, team, etc.) an identity.

Think about how most people will interact with your company for the first time. Whether it’s through your website, a social media channel, a business card, or a booth at a conference, you want to make a positive first impression — and it’s hard to do this with words alone.

By giving your company a mark that fits into spaces both large and small, you’re strengthening your business name (and overall brand) and providing a visual to your target audience. You’re saying “hi” without being pushy or obnoxious.

That’s not to say your logo has to explicitly identify what you do or sell — for example, if you’re a finance company, you don’t need to include dollar signs or piggy banks in your logo.

But what your logo does need to do is communicate your brand attributes (and personality!)using visual cues like colors, fonts, symbols, shapes, and slogans. And itneeds to do it in a way that’s simple, straightforward, and adaptable across mediums.

It makes your brand stickier.

How many times have you forgotten the name of something, but can describe how it looks? In a world where people interact with hundreds of brands a day, you have milliseconds to capture someone’s attention and stand out.

A distinctive logo makes your brand (and business) easier to recall because humans are wired to identify images and use them to derive meaning and stories.

According to Optimal Targeting, our brain processes visuals 60,000x faster than text, and people remember 80% of images (versus 20%)

You can see this visual recall in action when you look at the results of this experiment, where 156 people were asked to draw ten iconic logos from memory, including Ikea and Burger King. While the resultsvary widely, most people do a good job capturing aspects of these logos,especially brand colours.

When you’re designing a logo, think of the person who might see it on a sign, a social media ad, an event poster, or a sticker on a laptop — and then think about how you want them to remember it.

It communicates professionalism and builds trust.

When you’re starting a new business, it can be a challenge to get others— be it customers, vendors, or investors — to trust you. That’s why it helps to take the old-school advice of “dressing for the job you want.”

Before a person tries your product or service, they assess appearance.Think about if you visit a mediocre website or get handed a business card that looks dated. It doesn’t instil trust or confidence, does it? You’re probably not going to jump to purchase something or contact someone for more information.

In contrast, a strong brand can inspire someone who doesn’t know anything about your business to start to gain trust and interest in what you deliver. It can also help build loyalty over time, as your business grows and gains fans — you need only think of your favourite coffee shop logo and how seeing it on a someone’s cup in the morning makes you feel.

By designing a great logo and putting it on your website and other customer-facing materials, you can immediately convey that you mean business.And because 70% of companies say it’s cheaper to retain a customer than acquire a newone, the more you can do to build trust, the stronger your business will be.

Starting a business or big project is hard. And as mentioned above, it can be a challenge to persuade someone to take a chance on you — especially when

you when you’re not always 100% sure you have what it takes.

Because of the sheer number of obstacles to overcome when starting a business, it can be hard to feel confident in what you’re doing. So many unknowns! So many things to learn!

 Though it sounds superficial, a logo can help with that. It makes whatyou’re doing (or trying to do) more tangible and gives you something to build on.

When you send out an email to a supplier, submit a proposal to a client,or start that crowd funding campaign, your logo will subliminally send the message, “I’ve invested the time and energy into this project. It’s real. It’shappening!”

And it might be a stretch, but if you believe the effects of clothing on cognitive processes, it may even help to get your logo printed on a shirt and wear it whenever you need a confidence boost.

It provides a foundation for your visual brand.  

After you’ve designed a logo, you can confidently move on to other visual branding decisions because you’ll have chosen some key colors and fonts.When you buy a logo, you’ll usually get a set of brand guidelines that explain what your logo consists of and how it should be use don different applications. This codified set of guide lines helps you build visual consistency (and brand memorability) as you grow your business and hire others to create assets for you.

Even if your logo doesn’t have a type face that can be applied to headings or body copy, the style of your logo and font (e.g. sans serif,script, futuristic) will give you a basis for making those decisions. (Psst…Looka’s Enterprise Package includes brand guidelines to guide your future branding efforts.)

It helps you create online and offline branded assets.

 The amount of to-do list items to tick off when you’re launching abusiness is daunting. Typical among them is “finish the website,” “get businesscards,” and “start a Facebook page.”

These to-do items can easily get stalled or put on the backburner if you don’t have a logo. But remember: even if you’re launching the most basic of“Coming Soon” pages, a logo will put a professional stamp on what you’re doing and let you move on to other tasks.

In other words, by investing in a logo you love, you’ll be able to check off the essential marketing to-dos, choose the other branded applications that make the most sense for your business — and then create or outsource them accordingly.

It gives you something to put meaning into overtime.

As famous logo designer Michael Beirut points out, you have to think of logos as “empty vessels…and then you pour meaning into them.”

Even a super attractive logo doesn’t have meaning right away — it’s something that’ll grow stronger and more impactful as you gain the respect ofusers and customers over time.

To get started, do your research, consider multiple options, and think about the brand attributes you want to be known for (check out our ultimate guide to logo design for more details).

Then start brain storming the awesome logo you’re going to create!

Why A Logo Is Important

When you’re considering all of the factors that go into building a business, creating a logo might not seem like a top priority. But it should be!

“Maybe I don’t even need a logo at all,” a little voice is whispering in the back of your mind.

Don’t listen to that voice; he couldn’t be more wrong.   Your logo is an integral part of making your brand a successful one – right up there with having high-quality products and positive referrals.

So, if you don’tknow just why a logo is so important – then read on to find out why.“A strong logo is the beginning of your company’s branding
and conveys your business’s vision.”

1. Grabs Attention

Attention spans are short these days – especially consumers.

As things stand, companies have about 2 seconds to convince potential customers that their products are worth any consideration.

Enter: Your logo.

A logo can quickly grab viewers’ attention and communicate a company’s core values in an interesting way. That short attention span – you know, the one that causes consumers to judge your business by its appearance – can work to your advantage, if you have a solid logo to speak for your company.  

“Most viewers take less than three seconds to scan
a full web-page and form their first impressions.
The next thing they look for?  A company’s logo.”

2. Makes a Strong First Impression

You have one chance to get this right.

A logo is a company’s first introduction to consumers. If designed well,it can pique the interest of the public and invite them to learn more about the company; if not, you’ve just alienated a potential customer base and basically tanked your business.

(We’re kidding – sort of.)

This first impression is your way to immediately communicate ownership over the product(s) you sellor niche you dominate.

Do you offer women’s basketballs with an enhanced grip? Is your financial advice particularly helpful for solopreneurs? Your logo introduces your company as an authority in your professional space from the get-go.

3. It’s the Foundation of Your Brand Identity

Successful branding is about telling a story that will influence customers’ emotions – plain and simple.  

And, while it’s true that logo designis only a part of a company’s brand, it serves as the foundation for the entire narrative on which the brand is built.

Colours, tones, fonts – all of this is determined by the story you’re trying to tell, and your logo sets the stage for this story.

These elements will later translate from your logo onto all of your branding materials –letterheads, business cards, landing pages, you name it – creating a concrete,marketable brand identity.  

4. Visual = Memorable

Your logo leads the horse (your audience) to water (your company).

Logos are a point of identification;they’re the symbol that customers use to recognize your brand. Ideally, you’ll want people to instantly connect the sight of your logo with the memory of whatyour company does – and, more importantly, how it makes them feel.

Because a good logo is a visual,a esthetically pleasing element, it triggers positive recall about your brand that the name of your company alone might not.

And, if we’re all being honest, some of your audience will likely forget the name of yourbusiness (don’t take it personally – it’s human nature), but they’ll immediately associate your logo with their memories of your brand.

5. Separates You from Competition

Dare to be different with your logo,because your company logo tells consumers why your business is unique. Sure,maybe there are 50 other coffee shops in your city, but yours is the only one that’s committed to sustainability, and your green, earthy logo drives that message home.

A well-designed company logo can communicate everything from the company’s background (professional, relaxed, fun) to their mission(entertainment, efficiency, and innovation) through the right icon or proper font.

In other words, your logo is the forum to both convey your values and show consumers why you’re not like your competitors – you’re better.

6. Fosters Brand Loyalty

Say it with me: Consumers crave consistency.

As your brand grows, your logo is going to become more familiar to awide range of consumers, and this familiarity creates the perception that you’re trust worthy and accessible.

Think about it: When you’re out shopping for work out gear and suddenly spot track pants with the Nike swoosh, you’re instantly ready to buy. Why? Because with Nike apparel, you know you’re in safe hands; Nike is a brand you trust. Trust is built on a well-designed logo, and brand loyalty is quick to follow.

Once they like you, your customers are going to seek you out again and again – and your logo is the thing they’ll look for first.

7 Your Audience Expects It

And, last but not least. 

Your logo is the first thing that your audience will look for when they see any communications from your brand. It should be front and center of all your marketing materials such as business cards, flyers, advertisements, etc.

If you don’t have a logo (and one that stands out), then you are missing an opportunity to make your business stick in the minds of your audience.

5 Characteristics of An Impactful Logo Design

At first, logo designing seems like a fairly simple skill to acquire. But, that’s only until you get started on designing one! As David Airey puts it in his book-Logo Design Love,

“Any one can design a logo, but not everyone can design the right logo”

A logo is not just an image, but also an introduction to a brand. And since first impressions matter, it is important to design a logo that inspires brand trust,loyalty and admiration. Here are 5 important characteristics of an impactful and effective logo design:


Imitation is the best form of flattery, however this is not the case when it comes to logo design. A good logo aids in creating a unique visual identity for a brand and helps it to stand out in a sea of competitors. While there is nothing wrong in taking a little design inspiration while creating a logo, it is important to push to be creative and as original as possible.


Sometimes, even the most beautiful and unique logos may not be successful. Why?Because they may not be appropriate for their intended audience. For example,using a playful, child-like font is great for a logo for a toys company, but for a bank? Not so much. Its important to research a brand’s mission, value sand its target audience before designing a logo – this will ensure that the logo is appropriate and effective for the brand.


From large banners and bill boards to something small like business cards and websites, typically a logo will be put to several uses. So it is important to create a scalable logo that is legible and maintains detail at all sizes. Also,a great logo is versatile in terms of color – it should look great in black and white, as well as in color as the contrast will help emphasize the idea. A few things to consider while designing a versatile logo are:

  • Will the logo look good in reverse color? (light logo on a dark background)
  • Will the logo be clear when sized to fit a postal stamp or favicon?
  • Will the logo be clear when sized to fit a billboard?
  • Will the logo be effective when it is printed in just one color?




Some logos are so iconic, that even toddlers can not only easily recall and recognize them but also figure out what the brand sells just by looking at the logo. This is exactly what a great logo is – memorable. Iconic logos in vokee motion and hence make a permanent impression in the minds of customers.


Keep away from trends while designing a logo. An effective logo is traditional and timeless, not trendy. While creating a visual brand identity, its important to ensure that its effectiveness is long lasting.


Finally, the K.I.S.S. (Keep it simple, stupid) approach is the way to go in logo design. Simple logos are incredibly effective, recognizable and versatile.

To summarize, here is a quote by Paul Rand, one of the world’s greatest designers:

“Alogo is a flag, a signature, an escutcheon, a street sign. A logo does not sell(directly), it identifies. A logo is rarely a description of a business. A logo derives meaning from the quality of the thing it symbolizes, not the other way around. A logo is less important than the product it signifies; what it represents is more important than what it looks like. The subject matter of alogo can be almost anything.”

What is Web Development?

Web developmentcommonly refers to the functions correlated with developing websites for hosting via intranet or Internet. The Web development process in corporates factors like Web design, Web content development, client-side/server-sidescripting and network security configuration, among other functions. Web development is also known as website development.

Web development is the coding or programming that accredits website functionality, as per the owner’s demands.It mainly associates with the non-design facet of building websites, whichconsists of coding and writing mark-up.

Web development ranges from generatingplain text pages to complex Web-based applications, social network applicationsand electronic business applications.

The Webdevelopment hierarchy is as follows:

  • Client-side coding
  • Server-side coding
  • Database technology 

Web Development – An Overview

Web developmentmainly consists of building, creating, and maintaining websites. It consists of aspects such as web design, web publishing, web programming, and data base management.

While the terms “web developer”and “web designer” are often used frequently, they do not mean the same thing. Technically, a web designer only designs website interfaces using HTML and CSS. A web developer may be muddled in designing a website, but mayalso write web scripts in languages such as PHP. Additionally, a web developer may help maintain and update a database used by a dynamic website.

Web development consist of many types of web content creation. Some examples include hand coding web pages in a text editor, designing a website in a program like Dream weaver, and updating a blog via a blogging website. In last few years, content management systems likeWordPress, Drupal, and Joomla have also become crowd-pleasing in means of webdevelopment. These tools make it easy for anyone to create and edit their ownwebsite using a web-based interface.

While there are considerable methods ofdeveloping websites, there’s usually a trade-off between simplicity andcustomization. Therefore, most large businesses do not prefer content management systems, but instead have a dedicated Web development team that designs and manage the company’s website(s). Small organizations and individuals are more likely to choose a solution like WordPress that serve abasic website template and simplified editing tools.

1. Definition of Web Development?

Web development is the process of building websites and applications for the internet, or for a private network known as anintranet. Web development is not concerned with the design of a website;rather, it’s all about the coding and programming that powers the website’s functionality.

From the most simple, static web pages to social media platforms and apps, from ecommerce websites to content management systems(CMS); all the tools we use via the internet on a daily basis have been builtby web developers.

Web development can be broken down into three layers: client-side coding (frontend), server-side coding (backend) and database technology.

Let’s take a look at each of these layers in more detail.


Client-side scripting, or frontend development, refers to everything that the end user experiences directly. Client-side code executesin a web browser and directly relates to what people see when they visit a website. Things like layout, fonts, colours, menus and contact forms are all driven by the front end.


Server-side scripting, or backend development, is all about what goes on behind the scenes. The backend is essentially the part of a website that the user doesn’t actually see. It is responsible for storing and organizing data, and ensuring that everything on the client-side runs smoothly. It does this by communicating with the frontend. Whenever something happens on the client-side — say, a user fills out a form — the browser sends a request to the server-side. The server-side “responds” with relevant information in the form of frontend code that the browser can then interpret and display.

Database technology

Websites also rely on database technology. The database contains all the files and content that are necessary for a website to function, storing it in such a way that makes it easy to retrieve, organize, edit and save. The database runs on a server, and most websites typically use some form of relational database management system (RDBMS).

To summarize: the frontend, backend and database technology all work together to build and run a fully functional website or application, and these three layers form the foundation of web development.

The Difference Between Web Development and Web Design

You might hear the terms web development and web design used interchangeably, but these are two very different things.

Imagine a web designer and web developer working together to build a car: the developer would take care of all the functional components, like the engine, the wheels and the gears, while the designer would be responsible for both the visual aspects — how the car looks, the layout of the dashboard, the design of the seats — and for the user experience providedby the car, so whether or not it’s a smooth drive.

Web designers design how the website looks and feels.They model the layout of the website, making sure it’s logical, user-friendlyand pleasant to use. They consider all the different visual elements: whatcolour schemes and fonts will be used? What buttons, drop-down menus and scrollbars should be included, and where? What interactive touch points does the user interact with to get from point A to B? Web design also considers the information architecture of the website, establishing what content will be included and where it should be placed.

Web design is an extremely broad field, and will oftenbe broken down into more specific roles such as User Experience Design, User Interface Design and Information Architecture.

It is the web developer’s job to take this design and develop it into a live, fully functional website. A frontend developer takes the visual design as provided by the web designer and builds it using coding languages such as HTML, CSS and JavaScript. A backend developer builds the more advanced functionality of the site, such as the checkout function on an ecommerce site.

In short, a web designer is the architect, while the web developer is the builder or engineer.

2. A Brief History of the World Wide Web

The web as we know it today has been decades in the making. To help understand how web development works, let’s go back to where it all started and consider how the internet has evolved over the years.

1965: The first WAN (Wide Area Network)
The internet is essentially a network of networks, connecting all different WANs. WAN stands for Wide Area Network, a telecommunications network that spansa large geographical distance. The first WAN was established in 1965 at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Later on, this WAN would be known as ARPANET. It was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency ofthe US Department of Defence.

1969: The first ever internet message
In October 1969, UCLA student Charley Kline sent the first ever internet message. He tried to send the word “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute via the ARPANET network, but the system crashed after the first two letters. However, about an hour later, the system recovered and the full textwas successfully delivered.

1970s: The rise of the LAN (Local Area Network)
The early 70s saw the development of several experimental LAN technologies. LAN stands for Local Area Network, a computer network that connects nearby devices in the same buildings — such as in schools, universities, and libraries. Some notable milestones include the development of Ethernet at Xerox Parc from1973-1974, and the development of ARCNET in 1976.

1982 – 1989:Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), Internet Protocol (IP), the Domain Name System and Dial-Up Access
In 1982, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) emergedas the ARPANET protocol, and TCP/IP remains the standard internet protocoltoday. In 1983, the Domain Name System was established, providing a moreuser-friendly way of labelling and designating websites (i.e. careerfoundry.cominstead of a series of numbers). In 1987, Cisco shipped its first router, andin 1989, became the first commercial provider of dial-up internetaccess.

1990: Tim Berners-Lee and HTML
In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN (the European Organization forNuclear Research) developed HTML — Hypertext Mark-up Language. HTML became, andstill is, a fundamental building block of the internet.

1991: The WorldWide Web Goes Mainstream
With the rise of the visual internet browser, the World Wide Web made its way into the main stream. As of 2018, there are more than 4 billion internet users around the globe.

3. What Does a Web Developer Do?

The role of the web developer is to build and maintain websites. Web developers can work in-house or freelance, and the specific tasks and responsibilities involved will vary depending on whether they’re working as a frontend, backendor full stack developer. Full stack developers specialize in both the frontendand backend; we’ll go into more detail about what a full stack developerdoes later on.

Web developers are responsible for building a productthat meets both the client’s needs and those of the customer or end user. Web developers collaborate with stakeholders, clients and designers in order to understand the vision: how should the final website look and function?

A large part of web development also revolves around identifying and fixing bugs in order to constantly optimize and improve a website or system. Web developers are therefore keen problem solvers, regularly coming up with solutions and work arounds to keep things running smoothly.

Of course, all web developers are proficient incertain programming languages. However, different developers will work with different languages depending on their specific job title and area of expertise. Let’s take a look at the different layers of web development and the associated tasks in more detail.

Learn more: What is a typical day in the life of a web developer?

What does a frontend developer do?

It is the frontend developer’s job to code the frontend of a website or application; that is, the part of the website that the user sees and interacts with. They take the backend data and turn it into something that is easily comprehensible, visually pleasing and fully functional for the everyday user. They will work from designs provided by the web designer and bring them to life using HTML, JavaScript and CSS (more on those later!).

The frontend developer implements the website’slayout, interactive and navigational elements such as buttons and scrollbars,images, content and internal links (links that navigate from one page toanother within the same website). Frontend developers are also responsible forensuring optimal display across different browsers and devices. They will code the website in such a way that makes it responsive or adaptive to various screen sizes, so that the user gets the same experience whether they’revisiting the website on mobile, desktop or tablet.

Frontend developers will also carry out usabilitytests and fix any bugs that arise. At the same time, they will consider SEO best practices, maintain software work flow management, and develop tools that enhance how the user interacts with a website in any browser.

What does a backend developer do?

The backend is essentially the brains behind the face(the frontend). A backend developer is therefore responsible for building and maintaining the technology needed to power the frontend, consisting of three parts: a server, an application and a database.

The code that backend developers create ensures that everything the frontend developer builds is fully functional, and it is the backend developer’s job to make sure that the server, application and databaseall communicate with each other. So how do they do this? First, they useserver-side languages such as PHP, Ruby, Python and Java to build the application. Then they use tools like My SQL, Oracle and SQL Server to find, save or edit data and deliver it back to the user in frontend code.

Just like frontend developers, backend developers will liaise with the client or business owner in order to understand their needs and requirements. They will then deliver these in a number of ways depending on the specifics of the project. Typical backend development tasks include creating,integrating and managing the database, building server-side software using backend frameworks, developing and deploying content management systems (for ablog, for example), as well as working with web server technologies, APIintegration and operating systems.

Backend developers are also responsible for testing and debugging any backend elements of a system or application.

What does a full-stack developer do?

A full stack developer is someone who understands, and can work across, the “full stack” of technology: i.e. both the frontend and the backend. Full stack developers are experts in every stage of the web development process, meaning they are well-equipped to get hands on, but can also guide on strategy and best practices.

Most full stack developers have gathered many years ofexperience in a variety of different roles, giving them a solid groundingacross the entire web development spectrum. Full stack developers areproficient in both frontend and backend languages and frameworks, as well as inserver, network and hosting environments. They are also well-versed in both business logic and user experience.

Mobile Developers

Web developers may also specialize in mobile app development, either for iOS or Android.

iOS developers build apps that run with the iOS operating system — the one used by Apple devices. iOS developers are fluentin Swift, the programming language that Apple created specifically for their apps.

Android developers build apps that are compatible with all Android devices, such as Samsung smartphones. Java is the official programming language for Android.

4. Programming Languages, Libraries and Frameworks
In order to build websites and apps, web developers work with languages,libraries and frameworks. Let’s take a look at each of these in detail, as well as some other tools that web developers use in their day-to-day work.

What are languages?

In the world of web development, languages are the building blocks that programmers use to create websites, apps and software.There are all different types of languages, including programming languages, markup languages, style sheet languages and database languages.

languages Programming

A programming language is essentially a set of instructions and commands which tell the computer to produce a certain output.Programmers use so-called “high-level” programming languages to write sourcecode. High-level languages use logical words and symbols, making them easy for humans to read and understand. High-level languages can be classified as either compiled or interpreted languages.

C++ and Java, for instance, are compiled high-level languages; they are first saved in a text-based format that is comprehensible for human programmers but not for computers. In order for the computer to run the source code, it needs to be converted to a low-level language; i.e. machine code. Compiled languages tend to be used to create software applications.

Interpreted languages like Perl and PHP do not need to be compiled. Instead, source code written in these languages can be run through an interpreter — a program that reads and executes code. Interpreted languages are generally used for running scripts, such as those used to generate content for dynamic websites.

Low-level languages are those that can be directly recognized by and executed on the computer hardware; they don’t need to beinterpreted or translated. Machine language and assembly language are somecommon examples of low-level languages.

Some of the most popular programming languages of 2018 include Java, C, C++, Python, C#, JavaScript, PHP, Ruby and Perl.

Learn more: A beginner’s guide to the 10 most popular programming languages

Markup languages

Markup languages are used to specify the formatting of a text file. In other words, a markup language tells the software that displays the text how the text should be formatted. Markup languages are completely legible to the human eye — they contain standard words — but the markup tags are not visible in the final output.

The two most popular markup languages are HTML and XML. HTML standsfor Hyper Text Markup Language and is used for the creation of websites. When added to a plain text document, HTML tags describe how this document should bed is played by a web browser. To understand how HTML works, let’s take the example of bold tags. The HTML version would be written as follows:

<b>Make this sentence bold!</b>

When the browser reads this, it knows to display that sentence in bold. This is what the user sees:

Make thissentence bold!
Learnmore: What is HTML? A beginner’s guide
XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. It is a markup language very similarto HTML; however, while HTML was designed to display data with a focus on howit looks, XML was designed purely to store and transport data. Unlike HTML, XMLtags are not predefined; rather, they are created by the author of thedocument. The point of XML is to simplify data sharing and transport, platformchanges and data availability, as it provides a software andhardware-independent means of storing, transporting and sharing data. You can learnmore about XML and how it works here.

Style sheet languages

A style sheet is basically a set of stylistic rules. Style sheet languages are used, quite literally, to style documents that are written in markup languages.

Consider a document written in HTML and styled using CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), a style sheet language. The HTML is responsiblefor the content and structure of the web page, while CSS determines how this content should be presented visually. CSS can be used to add colours, changefonts, insert backgrounds and borders, as well as to style forms. CSS is also used to optimize web pages for responsive design, ensuring they adapt their layout to whatever device the user is on.

Learn more: What is CSS?

Database languages

Languages are not only used for building websites, software and apps; they are also used to create and manage databases.

Databases are used to store huge volumes of data. The Spotify music app, for example, uses databases to store music files, as well as data about the user’s listening preferences. Likewise, social media apps like Instagram use databases to store user profile information; every time a user updates their profile in some way, the app’s database will also update.

Databases are not designed to understand the same languages that apps are programmed in, so it’s essential to have a language that they do understand — like SQL, the standard language for accessing and manipulating relational databases. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It has its own markup, and basically enables programmers to work with the data held in a database system.

What are libraries and frameworks?

Web developers also work with libraries and frameworks. Despite much confusion,they are not the same thing — although they are both there to make the developer’s job easier.

Libraries and frameworks are essentially sets of prewritten code, but libraries are smaller and tend to be used for more specific use-cases. A library contains a collection of useful code, grouped together to be reused later. The purpose of a library is to enable developers to reach the same end goal while writing less code to get there.

Let’s take the example of JavaScript, the language,and jQuery, a JavaScript library. Rather than writing, say, ten lines of code in JavaScript, the developer can take the condensed, prewritten version from the jQuery library — saving time and effort.
A framework contains ready-made components and tools that enable the developerto write code faster, and many frameworks also contain libraries. It gives the developer a structure to work from, and the framework you choose to work with will largely dictate the way you build your website or app, so choosing a framework is a big decision. Some popular frameworks include Bootstrap, Rails andAngular.

The easiest way to understand libraries and frameworksis to imagine you are building a house. The framework provides the foundation and the structure, as well as instructions or guidelines for completing certain tasks. Say you want to install an oven in your new home: you could buy the separate components and build the oven from scratch, or you could pick aready-made oven from the store. Just like building a website, you can write the code from scratch or you can take pre-written code from a library and simply insert it.

Other web development tools

Web developers will also use a text editor, such as Atom, Sublime or Visual Studio Code, to write their code; a web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox; and an extremely crucial tool: Git!

Git is a versioncontrol system where developers can store and manage their code. As a web developer, it’s inevitable that you’ll make constant changes to your code, so a tool like Git that enables you to track these changes and reverse them if necessary is extremely valuable. Git also makes it easier to work with other teams and to manage multiple projects at once. Git has become such a staple in the world of web development that it’s now considered really bad practice not to use it.

Another extremely popular tool is GitHub, a cloud interface for Git. GitHub offers all the version control functionality of Git,but also comes with its own features such as bug tracking, task management and project wikis. GitHub not only hosts repositories; it also provides developerswith a comprehensive toolset, making it easier to follow best practices for coding. It is considered the place to be for open-source projects, and also provides a platform for web developers to showcase their skills.

marketing skills


Starting up a business with a good marketing reputation comes with its own pros and cons, although present day businesses have now better the approach to content management and presentations that have proven to work in resent years, these wasn’t two decades ago when logical human reasoning was required to cater for vast activities and service rendered by organizations, companies and firms.

In our current day of living, entrepreneurship as emerged as the driving force in the labour market, considering its powerful rise to the major source of employment all over the world, it has forced all attentions and study, unfailingly resulting have emerged and there is no other bigger secretes than STRATEGIC MARKETING.

Although social media have made marketing procedure simpler and quicker in outreach to unimaginable number of people, but strategy as one of the major tools of marketing goes wilder than just B2B emails, advertising companies, leads generations or the social media itself.

Marketing style often varies due to changes in the environment, uncertainty, economic periods, as well as social and political issues, have significantly influenced recent marketing conditions.

In many years of marketing practice, the most effective practitioners (x%) are those that sticks to the basic rules of marketing which was laid down by Philip Kotler of the Kellogg School of Management, here are the top three:


Starting up a business requires a pattern and course of which the business sails, Bob Wilson of stoney-wilson business consulting said “You need a destination and you need a map to get there,” that is the primary aim of all business plans. The reputation of a business always depends on the tactical analysis of the plan, a well planed business will always have room for misfortunes that might be encountered, SWOT analysis is the essential tool to this aspect of business strategy well analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of such business. In feature, a company business plan might be required by lenders, insurance companies, bonding companies for investment purposes, having a good business plan on ground makes investment suitable for potential investors.

A business plan helps the business owner to think through issues and understand problems. It’s the shorter-term plan 6-12 months — as compared to the longer-term strategy plan. The shorter term enables greater accuracy in completing the action steps to achieve the key initiatives, Wilson explains.


  1. Understanding your targeted audience and solving their problems:

Knowing the competition is an important component of a business strategy. In order to compete, you must understand what the competition is doing, these plays a vital role in modern day marketing, having a product or services developed on the bases of good market survey, quality questionnaires and customer opinions or feed backs helps in producing quality problems solving materials and providing (as the case maybe) a fore knowledge of a particular field or product. This help you to shea away from corporate competitive advantages or technology. having this in place, help you to have more time to interact with your costumer, analyze their problems accept their criticism, suggestions, evaluate their compliant then device a means to beat down the pricing and service levels of your competitors. With these you great a new approach to your proposed field.

  1. Build your brand promise that is delivered by everyone in your business network:

one thing is understanding your market, another is policy that guide your product, in this regards all employees and agents of your company including associates have to be trained and monitored so as to maintain the integrity of the product you produced and for then to meet with expectations. Transparency is also a watch world when going about this part of marketing strategy. Companies like Amazon, Ebay, Microsoft all have this as a major rule in their businesses, they all train their workers and all their channels are made to follow the company private policy. It also helps in gaining the trust of your potential customer. Knowing the competition is an important component of a business plan. In order to compete, you must understand what the competition is doing, such as pricing and service levels.

  1. Innovate continuously in your products and services:

For a company to maintain it strong hold for fortunes of years, it has to understand this universal marketing rule. The need for continuous growth has to be perpetual if your company must stay in the spot light. Changes made in the company’s product due to present demands or problems could only take care of current situations therefore drastic measures, materials and more thinking strength have to be put in place to take care of the future. This are measures that the founders of the world largest branding companies, Adolf Dassler (Adidas) and Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman (Nike) put in place when they started and it helped in keeping the supply chain alive. Love their prosperity? why don’t u do the same to your business.

This were the basic strategy Philip Kotler laid down, but that’s not all, there are more of which he made mention of, the above are the predominant and basic strategies practiced by the standing out companies of today.

developing a tactical strategy intelligence for your business on vulnerability

Developing a TACTICAL STRATEGY INTELLIGENCE FOR your business, no vulnerability

Strategic intelligence and tactical planning differ in several ways. When these two great pillars of business are augmented with each other it great a more solid and fertile ground for any business to flourish. Considering strategic intelligence as the widescreen view and tactical intelligence as one or more close-up views. Business leaders may find it helpful to understand the importance in aligning the both in a business differences in terms of overall purpose and scope.

Tactical intelligence is designed to deal basically with the present challenge or new innovation to a product. Meanwhile the company’s strategy intelligence is designed to be the driving force of the company in other words the strategy of a business is the power house of that business I.e strategy intelligence controls the long- and short-time goal, activities, banding and financial status of the business.

Tactical planning is such an important part of a company’s strategic planning process that management consulting companies are often hired to assist companies in preparing tactical plans. A company usually begins with its objectives and then develops strategies for how to carry out their objectives. Tactical plans are the specific action steps necessary to get instant results.

Below are some ways you can remove vulnerabilities in your business through tactical strategy intelligence:


When starting up a business, one of the first things that comes to your mind is putting-up a team or a back-room staff. Yea, no big deal isn’t it? But as simple as it sounds, so it proves difficult to accomplish, deep thought is required strategy is needed in selecting your workers.

If you haven’t yet hired multiple employees, take considerable time to distinguish what you want in a work team. normally, you’ll hire people who share the same perspective of work or idea as you do and who get excited about your services. In this case, You should write out a job description for each key position and keep that handy during the hiring process. Also, invite other team members to participate in the interview process and weigh in on whom you’ll hire next.

Start by knowing what you’re looking for. reviewing your organizational chart, functions and personnel can help you identify gaps between your current talent and missing skills. Consider both short-term openings and long-term needs, factoring in how company expansion, personnel changes or industry developments might affect your needs. For instance.

As you identify areas that require personnel, consider your hiring options. Do you need a full-time staff member, part-time employee, ongoing vendor or project contractor? Each has its pros and cons. Full-time staff bring long-term experience and loyalty, but can increase expense. Part-time employees offer flexible pay and hours, but may get hired away, and can complicate your benefits and tax liabilities.

Choose your most applicable option. As a rule of thumb, assign full-time employees to your company’s core strengths, and use additional personnel to fill out peripheral duties.


All businesses have its strength and weakness, in the world of business, strengths differ in individual businesses same are there weakness. In this case Strategic intelligence is most regarded for this task, though Tactical intelligence might be required in feature to solve current problems, strategic intelligence give you a long-term and short-term perspective on what may befall the company, organization or any business (as the case maybe) in feature. To strengthen your business, you have to identify the weakness or vulnerability.

When you have successfully identified the whoa in your business, then fall back to the staff you have employed, make proper examination on who will be perfect in that aspect. You have to be careful in your selections having in mind that this is the most vulnerable path of your business, an experienced hand is most required for the task. This must be done with serious supervision and continues checks, remember this is your business weaker foot, it must be guided jealously.

On the other hand, your business strength needs to be placed under continuous check. Balancing work input have to be prominent to avoid uneven development in the strength and weakness chart. Tactical intelligence Is largely advisable in your approach to solving this problem since it has to be built upon always. New and improved characteristics have to be added to the pre-existing plans. Tactical decisions now enable decision-makers to implement tasks and initiatives to take advantage of current opportunities and to redirect resources, as needed.


Starting-up a business had never been an easy task, a lot have to be catered for but the most important thing is to know your marketing, target audience and the level of competitions involved. Many promising businesses often die off shortly after they kicked off this may be due to improper planning, low funding among numerous options, never the less majority of these sudden collapse comes as a result of the entrepreneur not understanding his or her market and failing to figure out target market. To understand these, much research has to be made to keep you on track. On completing this vigorous exercise, you will be able to distinguish were and were not to venture into to get your target audience.

When Dealing with competitions, one has to be careful in competing with the opposition party.  competitors are everywhere, whether you’re a startup owner or veteran, you need to know how to deal with competitors in business. It’s tempting for a marketer to believe that their product or service is the best in the world. The reality of the situation is that the public has many different options for the same product.

Your customers have the option to go wherever they want — and as a marketer, you must respect their freedom. The competition has to be taken seriously, and the marketer must always make an effort to stand out.

You have to be soft with your customers but wise in your dealings with other competitors. Never admin the thought that your customers will identify your product, one top secrete is “the moment you start to think your product ranks best in the market, from that moment onwards do you start to depreciate from the top ranking.” meaning: never be certified with your progress, always find a way to improve your services.


To run a successful business, it’s important to keep track of all activities within and outside the borders of your business, this routine must be carried out continuously and consciously, it won’t only help you to keep tracks of work progress but also helps you to know area lacking in the business and how to fix them quickly.  Tactical or strategic intelligence might be required to offer the information needed to correct or improve the effectiveness of a current operation.

Continuous work review also helps you in the competition phase of your business, sometimes competitors seize the advantage internal weakness to explore their rivals. These internal weaknesses may be little, some may pose little or no threat at all at the time, they can be very destructive if your competitors lay hold on them. Therefore, you need to double check everything that is associated with your business and services, this doesn’t exempt your workers.


Before introducing any product to the market, it’s important to make proper check or a test run maybe, to know the efficiency of what you are about to influence the society with. Many people practice before the putting their product out on sale. But the big question is how long did you test? There are a lot of product out today that are not performing to their expectations, they may be as a result of lack of understanding of the products but most of them actually didn’t meet with the expectations as mentioned during the adverts.

Reviewing your products will help you to keep track your services to customers, in your attempt to know how well your product is doing, you should consider making an underground research through your customers on how good your product or services pleases or meet with their demands, getting their feedback helps you to figure out the best tactical approach required to improvise and improve. Remember that your competitors most not know the displeasure in your product or else you might risk being at the losing end in future.

the ultimate secret to online success for small and medium size business
The Ultimate Secret to Online Success for Small and Medium size Business

When most people begin any kind of business they seem to have a lot of expectations. They think the money will come rolling the moment they place their adds, get a webpage, or spend on advertising and a promotion campaign, etc. If you have a business you pretty much can tell that that is not necessarily the case. However, this particular article I am going to dedicate it to Internet business. I figure, you are online reading this article right now, maybe you may want to learn a little bit more about how to sell your products or services online.

By the way, don’t think because you are a construction worker for example, that the internet could not be of use to you. You get a little creative and you’ll be surprised with the ideas that can come about that could help you generate income online. But let’s continue with the article, shall we?

I am not going to deny the fact that a lot of profit can be generated in short periods of time. It has happened in the past and will keep happening in the future. There is an old saying, “There’s nothing more powerful than an idea who’s time has come!”

In other words, you can have a very lucrative idea, but the market is not ready for it, therefore you may end up loosing your investment just to find out months later that that very same idea becomes a huge success for someone else. Basically, being at the right place at the right time certainly helps. And you will ALWAYS be at the right place and the right time if you listen to your heart. To the guiding Spirit within.

Then off course, there is the other side of the coin. Having a great idea, being at the right place at the right time, but not being able to capitalize on it. Well, this is what this article is going to address. We are going to explore the reasons why people buy! And I am going to dissect each topic briefly so you can have a much deeper understanding as to how all of the following pieces of the puzzle fit together.

First, I am going to address the importance of the word VALUE. When you have something to offer where there is an open market for it, and more than likely there is a demand for your product, your efforts revolve around advertising. If what you are advertising is being offered by other businesses, then you have what is called competition. That being the case, you have to be able to create an urgency for people to buy from you, otherwise you could loose your potential customers to your competition, not because their’s are necessarily better. But because of the fact that not everyone buys on the first visit. Sometimes customers need a little bit of time before they make a decision. So if you already exposed them to what you have to offer and later on they see the same product on someone else’s site, they may be ready at that moment to purchase. They may end up ordering from someone else that product or service which you took the time to educate them in the first place.

Since internet surfers are what it’s called impulse buyers, you got to be prepared so that when a potential customer visits your site, she/he is ready to make the decision at that moment!

If you are advertising a videotape that teaches people how to market products online, you need to figure out ways to increase the “VALUE” of what you have to offer. You need to answer questions such as;

* Why is your video better than the rest?

* What is in your video that you feel would make someone say, “I want this!”

* What are they gaining from ordering? 

Since the beginning of time, marketing is all about figuring out ways to sell people on the idea that if they acquire whatever is you have to offer, they will “gain” something from it. If you have been subscribed to few newsletters and have read marketing articles, they summarize what I have just said in one word. BENEFITS. If from the very beginning you can point out what is it that your visitors will gain from your product or services, you increase dramatically the value of your product.

This is not the only way to add value to your product. But this is the best way to establish rapport and generate interest. So you must always begin by letting them know how your product or service is going to make them feel, or improve their life, or help them win, etc.

Once you have been able to add value to your product or service, honesty, integrity, and credibility play a very important role. Maybe right at the moment of purchase, depending on how much your asking price is, they may wonder, “how do I know this person knows what she’s talking about?”

So how do you add integrity? If you are an expert on something, can you tell me about your experience? Do you walk your talk? Does your site reflect what you talk about? For example, don’t go telling me how using frames and JAVA language can work against search engine placements and how bad they are for me, meanwhile, your site uses both, JAVA and frames. To me it means one of two things, you don’t know what you are talking about and therefore just passing along what others have told you, or there is something you know that you are not telling me.

Does that mean that if you do not have a great resume people wont buy from you? Absolutely NOT! Your resume could be your website. Here is what I mean, if someone visits your site and you don’t have a degree as a nutritionist, but your site is filled with very convincing articles and valuable information that shows that you know what you are talking about, that is enough to add credibility.

Let me take it one step further, if you create a very powerful sales letter, you can have your visitor so engaged in the information that she/he wont even bother to figure who you are, or what you do. However, to pull that off, you must offer a product that has great value, and if possible, money back guaranteed!

All you need to do is to come from a place of honesty and service, and as long as you can show credible ways in which your product will benefit your market, you should be able to sell your product(s) and/or service(s) online.

So you have something of value and you have been able to gain credibility. What can you do to add more substance to your product or service?

Let’s say you are giving a speech and want to quote an article regarding your subject matter which you have written on a piece of paper, if you hold the paper and read the words from it, it holds more credibility than if you were merely saying the words. Why that is? I don’t know. But that is just one of those interesting mysteries we come across every once in awhile.

So by having someone saying something positive about your product or service, it helps add credibility which in turn helps also increase the value of what you are offering.

What we have done so far is, we have strategically created leverage. We have given a solid foundation as to why people not only should, but must obtain whatever it is you are offering. Assuming that you are placing all these strategies in the RIGHT ORDER, positive results should be way within your reach.

So what makes people buy is:

* Value-Benefits (What am I gaining from this.)

* Value-Honesty (How do I know this is true.)

* Value-Endorsements (What others have to say about this.) 

Notice that I used the word “value” along with every example because value is what people consider before obtaining anything. Benefits, honesty and integrity as well as endorsements, even when each play a role in itself, they all have once thing in common. They “add value” to your product.

Create your own email signature